The Work and Pensions Committee has launched an inquiry into the new state pension, which will be introduced in April 2016.
MPs will be investigating the Department for Work and Pension's communication strategy, the impacts on specific groups of people and the UK government's "administrative readiness" for the implementation.
The committee said there were concerns for people who are close to retirement and may have done most or all of their planning under the "old" system.
The new system consists of a flat-rate single tier pension designed to offer a simpler pension. Men who were born after 1951 and women born after 1953 with at least 10 years of national insurance contribution are eligible to receive it. The full amount will be at least £151.25 per week, but the specific level will be set this autumn.
MPs said the transition period to the new pension would be "long and complex" with "a lot of uncertainty".
The committee said while many people were expected to be better off under the new system, those with fewer than 10 years of national insurance contributions would not receive any state pension.
"People need a good understanding of what to expect from the new state pension to aid retirement planning, and avoid confusion and shocks," said the committee.
Frank Field, chairman of the committee, commenting on the impact on different groups, said: "There is a group of women born between 1951 and 1953 who feel particularly aggrieved by the way they are affected by the transition to the new state pension."
Field said the committee, under previous membership, had "stressed the need for good communications" in advance of the changes.
"There is a sense that government has somewhat moved the goalposts in retirement savings without providing enough information about what are in the end, complex changes, and a risk that some people may face a shock when they come to claim their pension," he said.
"It is important that groups most affected by the changes receive targeted communications that highlight the options available to them."
The deadline for written submissions is 30 November.